Monday, 31 December 2007

Ancestry Tours of Glasgow Scotland

Ancestry Tours of Glasgow Scotland. Tour Glasgow, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland.

Friday, 28 December 2007

Scotland Winter Landscape

Scotland Winter Landscape. Tour Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland.

Thursday, 27 December 2007

Ancestry Tours of Tullibody Scotland

Tullibody Old Church, Clackmannanshire, Scotland. The old Parish Church of St Mungo dates from the 16th century. Reputedly one of the oldest villages in Scotland, and St. Mungo is said to have preached here. It has also been conjectured that Kenneth McAlpin, King of the Scots defeated the Picts at Baingle Brae and a stone there is reputed to mark the battlefield. Tour Tullibody, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Tullibody in 1846. Tullibody, a village and ancient parish, in the parish of Alloa, county of Clackmannan, 2 miles (W.) from the town of Alloa; containing 600 inhabitants. This parish was united to Alloa about the time of the Reformation. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the tanning of leather, for which there is a large establishment in the village; and in the manufacture of glass, for which there are extensive works belonging to the same proprietors. The ancient church has been restored, and adapted for the accommodation of this remote part of the parish; and the members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A school is supported by Lord Abercromby, who provides the master with a dwelling-house and garden, and an acre of land, and pays him a regular salary in addition to the school fees.

Wednesday, 26 December 2007

Ancestry Tours of South Queensferry Scotland

South Queensferry, Scotland. Hawes Pier is an excellent spot from which to photograph the Forth Railway Bridge. South Queensferry is situated on the south shore of the Firth and Forth and from here ferries used to cross the river, before the bridges were built. In the Summer, Cruise boats leave Hawes pier in South Queensferry for three hour cruises. Tour South Queensferry, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. South Queensferry in 1846. South Queensferry, a royal burgh and a parish, in the county of Linlithgow, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Linlithgow, and 9 (W. by N.) from Edinburgh; containing 721 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, appears, from the numerous remains of sepulchral urns, burnt bones, and other relics discovered at various times, to have been visited by the Romans, who probably deemed it the most convenient spot for crossing the Firth of Forth, and by whom it was called Freti Transitus. Its proximity to the military way leading to the wall of Antonine, also, affords presumptive evidence of its early importance. At the time of the conquest, in 1066, Edgar Atheling, with his sister Margaret, afterwards Queen of Scotland, fleeing from England, arrived here to take refuge at the Scottish court; and the place where he landed, to the westward of the town, is in commemoration of that event still called Port-Edgar. After her marriage to Malcolm Canmore, in 1067, this place was frequently visited by the queen, in her way to and from the royal palace of Dunfermline; and the particular spot where she was in the habit of crossing the Frith obtained the appellation of the Queen's Ferry, from which the town derives its present name. Malcolm IV. granted to the monks of the abbey of Scone a free passage to this place, which in his charter to that effect is designated Portus Regina, and the same privilege was granted also to the abbey of Dunfermline, by Pope Gregory, in 1234, and by Robert I. and III., and confirmed to it by charter of James II. in 1450. Though the place had been constituted a port in the reign of Malcolm IV., it was not erected into a royal burgh till 1636, when the inhabitants obtained a charter of privileges from Charles I. From this time the town rapidly increased in commercial importance; the inhabitants carried on a considerable trade with Holland, and in 1641 there were about twenty ships of large burthen belonging to the port, and several coastingvessels. During the war in the reign of Charles I., the town suffered frequent depredation from the contending parties, and in the time of Cromwell was injured by the cannon of some ships of his fleet. At the rebellion in 1745, it was threatened by the Highland troops in the Pretender's service; but was saved from being plundered by a ship of war at that time lying off the harbour.

The town is situated on the south side of the Firth of Forth, which is here about a mile and a half in breadth. It consists chiefly of one street, extending for about a quarter of a mile in length, and containing several good houses of modern erection; and is plentifully supplied with water, conveyed into a reservoir formed at the expense of the Earl of Rosebery, who also gave to the inhabitants a piece of ground for a bleach-green. The town has been greatly improved; new houses have been built, and handsome shops opened. There is a subscription library containing about 600 volumes; and the place is much resorted to for sea-bathing. A considerable degree of traffic arises from the numbers of persons crossing the ferry; but there are no large vessels now belonging to the port, nor is any foreign trade carried on; though occasionally a few coasting-vessels land cargoes of barley for the distilleries in the vicinity, and also of rape-cake, draining-tiles, and manure, for the use of the farmers, who frequently during the winter send potatoes to the London market. Coal, also, for the supply of the steamers on the ferry, and for the consumption of the neighbourhood, is brought in boats carrying from ten to twelve tons; and freestone from the quarries at Humbie, about three miles distant, is sometimes shipped at the port. The manufacture of soap, which was formerly extensive, and also a brewery, which had been long established, have both been discontinued; but a distillery under the Glenforth Distillery Company, making about 2000 gallons of whisky weekly, and employing twenty persons, is in high repute for the quality of the spirit.

The inhabitants are, however, chiefly engaged in the fisheries. To the west of the town a salmon-fishery has been recently established, and is carried on with success; stake-nets are employed, and during the months of July and August great quantities of salmon, grilse, and sea-trout are taken, and sent regularly to the Edinburgh market. During the winter months, many of the inhabitants are occupied in the herringfishery, which was first established at St. Margaret's Hope, and in the bay of Inverkeithing, nearly opposite to the town, in the year 1792, and has since been pursued with various success. In favourable seasons, from forty to fifty carts have been daily in attendance to purchase the fish taken, each carrying away from 6000 to 12,000 to different places; so that comparatively few are cured here. There are twelve boats belonging to the town, each having a crew of five men; besides which, from fifty to 100 boats from Fisherrow, Prestonpans, and other villages are employed in the fishery, the greater number discharging their cargoes here. Many of the females spin hemp, which is made by the younger children into nets. The shore is level and sandy, with the exception of some ledges of rock extending considerably into the sea on the east and west extremities of the parish, at the latter of which is the harbour, where a substantial stone pier has been erected, and several important improvements made, under the direction of Mr. H. Baird, civil engineer. The tide rises at the mouth of the harbour to the height of eighteen feet; and during the fishing-season, the harbour is generally crowded with the vessels employed in that trade. Since the discontinuance of the soap manufacture, however, which contributed largely to the excise-duties, the harbour-dues have been greatly diminished; and they at present scarcely produce £100 per annum.

The ferry, of which the history is rather obscure, is supposed to have been at first private property, to the owner of which the lands of Muiry Hall, consisting of about fifteen acres, were granted by Queen Margaret, in order to keep it in due repair. It was subsequently divided among several individuals, under whose management it was much neglected. The piers on the south side were in a very dilapidated condition; on the opposite shore of the Firth, where the boats were kept, and all the boatmen lived, there was only one pier; and much delay and inconvenience were experienced in crossing. In 1809, application was accordingly made to parliament, and an act obtained for the construction of proper landing-places, for purchasing sites for the erection of houses to receive the boatmen, for altering the system of management, and other things connected with the improvement of the ferry. Under the provisions of this act, the ferry was purchased by trustees from the various shareholders, for the sum of £8673, including which the total amount expended on the works was £33,824, whereof £13,500 were advanced by government, and the remainder raised by loan. With part of these funds, the pier at Port-Edgar, to the west of the town, which had become much dilapidated, was rebuilt on a larger scale at an expense of £4764; it is 378 feet in length, and has been rendered perfectly commodious. A pier, also, 722 feet in length, was constructed at New Halls, about half a mile to the east of the town, at an expense of £8700; and is now the principal landing-place on the south side of the ferry. A small pier was erected at Port-Nuick, at an expense of £587; and several houses for the boatmen were built, at a cost of nearly £1000. The pier on the north side of the ferry was erected at a cost of £4206: a signal-house and a house for the superintendant, were also built, at an expense of almost £700. A second grant was obtained from government, and a new subscription opened, in 1812, by which means a pier was constructed at the Long Craig, 1177 feet in length, and also a small pier at the East Battery; while on the north side, the West Battery pier was enlarged, and the North Ferry pier considerably lengthened.

Previously to 1821, there were but two sailing-boats and two pinnaces regularly employed in the ferry; but in that year steam navigation was introduced, and a fine steamer called the Queen Margaret was built at a cost of £2400, which, with three large sailing-boats, a half-tide boat, and three pinnaces, the several crews together amounting to thirty-six men and boys, performed the whole business of the ferry. In 1838, a larger steamer, of forty-eight horse power, called the William Adam, was substituted in the place of the Queen Margaret, which had been found inadequate to the work. Since this time, only two large sailing-boats and two pinnaces have been employed; and the number of persons engaged in navigating the steamer and the boats has been diminished to sixteen, with a shore-master, clerk, and two porters, on each side of the ferry. The William Adam leaves the South Ferry every hour, and the North pier at the half hour daily, from sunrise till sunset; and with such regularity is the business conducted, that passengers know the precise moment of their departure, and, by well-regulated signals while on the passage, may procure carriages waiting to forward them on their landing. Her Majesty Queen Victoria, attended by Prince Albert, crossed the Firth in the William Adam on the 5th of September, 1842, in her visit to the north, on which occasion the shore on both sides was crowded with spectators, and the Frith with vessels adorned with flags in honour of Her Majesty, who was hailed with the most joyful acclamations. There are several good houses at New Halls, and an excellent inn for the accommodation of passengers crossing the ferry; and the pleasingly romantic scenery in the neighbourhood renders the town the frequent resort of visiters and parties of pleasure. A fair is held annually in August; and facility of intercourse with Edinburgh, Linlithgow, and the other towns in the vicinity, is afforded by roads kept in excellent order, of which the chief are the great north road and the road to Edinburgh. The Edinburgh mail arrives daily at the post-office at half-past six in the morning, and at five in the afternoon; and the mail from the north at five in the morning, and at eight in the evening.

The government of the burgh of Queensferry is vested in a provost, two bailies, and seventeen towncouncillors, by whom all the other municipal officers of the place are elected. There are three incorporated trades or companies, the wrights, tailors, and weavers, in one of which it is necessary to enter previously to becoming a burgess; the fees of admission are, for the son or son-in-law of a burgess £2. 1. 2., and for a stranger £5. 2. 2. The jurisdiction of the magistrates is confined to the royalty. They hold courts for the determination of civil pleas to any amount, though for some years not more than ten causes have been tried annually; they also hold criminal courts, but for the trial of petty offences only, the more serious cases being sent to Linlithgow. The town-hall contains a room for the meetings of the council, with the requisite accommodation for holding the courts, and offices for transacting the other public business of the burgh; there is also a small room for the temporary confinement of prisoners. The police is under the superintendence of a townofficer, assisted by six constables, and appointed by the magistrates. The inhabitants appear to have sent a representative to the Scottish parliament in 1639; the burgh is now associated with Stirling, Inverkeithing, Culross, and Dunfermline, in returning a member to the imperial parliament. The right of election is vested by the Reform act of 1832 in the £10 householders, of whom there are within the parliamentary boundaries thirty-nine.

The parish was separated from the parish of Dalmeny in 1636, by charter under the great seal, ratified by act of parliament in 1641; it comprises only the site of the main part of the town, and the gardens and lands of the royalty, in all from eight to ten acres. The rateable annual value is £689. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The stipend of the minister is £171.8.6., of which £52. 2. 1. are paid from the exchequer; with an allowance, in lieu of manse and glebe, of £50 per annum, granted by a late act of parliament; patrons, the Town-council. The church, situated in the centre of the town, is a neat plain structure with a belfry, erected in 1635, and thoroughly repaired in 1821 at an expense of £500; the interior is well arranged, and contains 400 sittings, of which some are free. The parochial school is well attended, and the master has a salary of £29. 4. 6., and the fees, averaging about £44: a new building has recently been erected for the school, which is handsome and well adapted for the purpose. There is also a Sabbath school, to which is attached a library for the children. The poor of the parish have the yearly rent of land, and interest of money, amounting to £23, and part of the proceeds of a bequest by Capt. Henry Meek, of £5000, to the town of Queensferry, in which the poor of those small parts of the town that are within Dalmeny parish are allowed to participate. The Countess of Rosebery, also, gives employment to widows and industrious females in spinning, which contributes to their relief. In the western portion of the town are some remains of the ancient church of the Carmelite Friars, founded about the year 1330, by the Dundas family, whose place of sepulture it still remains; and there was formerly a house on the beach, called the Binks, erected for the accommodation of Queen Margaret while waiting for the arrival of her boat from the opposite shore of the ferry.

Sunday, 23 December 2007

Ancestry Tours of Perth Scotland

On the banks of the River Tay, in the very heart of Scotland, you will find yourself in the Fair City of Perth, Scotland. Tour Perth, Perthshire, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Perth in 1846. Perth, a city, a royal burgh, and anciently the metropolis of the kingdom of Scotland, in the county of Perth, of which it is the capital; comprising the parishes of East Church, Middle Church, St. Paul, and West Church, and the late quoad sacra district of St. Leonard; and containing 19,293 inhabitants, of whom 12,616 are in the burgh, 44 miles (N. by W.) from Edinburgh, and 61 (N. E.) from Glasgow. This place, which is of very remote antiquity, is supposed to have derived its name, originally Bertha, from the Celtic terms Bhar, "high," and Tatha, "the Tay," signifying "the Height of the Tay," from a lofty eminence on the opposite bank of that river, on the west side of which Perth is situated. The origin of the town is involved in much obscurity; but it is generally ascribed to the Roman general Agricola, who, about A.D. 85, established a winter station here, and founded a colonial town, which he fortified with walls, and with a strong castle surrounded by a broad and deep fosse supplied with water from the Almond, a stream tributary to the Tay, over which river he erected a bridge of wood. Little, however, is known of the history of the town from this period till 1210, when William the Lion, confirming a series of charters from the year 1106, and which are still extant, erected it into a royal burgh. From these several charters, it appears to have been at an early date a place of considerable importance, the seat of government, and the residence of the Scottish kings, who were crowned in the abbey of Scone, in its immediate vicinity. The remains of the ancient house of parliament were still in existence in 1818, when they were removed to afford a site for the erection of the Freemasons' Hall, on the north side of the High-street, in an area yet called the Parliament-close. The Flemings frequented the port at a very remote period, and several of them fixed their abode in the town; but from the impolitic restraints imposed upon them by David I. and his grandson, William the Lion, they ultimately emigrated to England, where, meeting with a more favourable reception, they established the woollen trade, and thus laid the foundation of that country's manufacturing prosperity. In 1210, the town was almost destroyed by an inundation of the rivers Tay and Almond, which swept away the bridge, an ancient chapel, and other buildings; the king, with his family and household, and many of the inhabitants, made their escape in boats, and such as remained found safety only on the flat roofs of their houses.

In the reign of Alexander III., the inhabitants carried on a very extensive trade with the Netherlands in vessels of their own, for the encouragement of which that monarch used every means in his power, making provision for the protection of their shipping from the attacks of pirates, and for guarding it against detention in foreign ports. During the disputed succession to the throne, Perth largely participated in the hostilities of that disturbed period. After the battle of Falkland in 1298, Edward I. of England, having obtained possession of all the Scottish fortresses, rebuilt the walls of the ancient castle, and fortified the town, which he placed under the government of his deputies, and in which his son, Edward II., resided for some years; but on the establishment of Robert Bruce in 1312, that monarch took active measures for the recovery of the fortresses and the expulsion of the English garrisons. Of all the strongholds, the castle of Perth was the most formidable, not only from its situation, being surrounded with a deep fosse, which prior to the use of artillery rendered it impregnable, but also from the numbers of the garrison; and though repeatedly assailed by the Scottish forces, it long resisted all their efforts to recover it. On his return from an incursion into England, Bruce laid siege to it in person, but, after a protracted attempt, fearing for the health of his forces, abandoned the enterprise. Still, however, persevering in his resolution to effect his purpose, he soon renewed the assault, and furnishing his forces with ladders, took the opportunity of a dark night, and while the garrison, fancying themselves in perfect security, were off their guard, partly swam across, and partly waded, the fosse at the head of his forces; carried the castle by escalade; and overpowering the garrison, made himself master of the fortress, and set fire to the town. Thus reducing the whole of Perth and Strathearn into his power, he completed the expulsion of the English from his dominions. In 1332, Edward Baliol, after the battle of Dupplin, seized Perth, and was crowned at Scone; but, returning southward to open a communication with the English marches, the loyal adherents of Bruce again besieged the castle, expelled the garrison which had been placed in it by the usurper, and recovered possession of the whole town.

In 1336, Edward III. of England, standing before the great altar in the church of St. John, in conversation with his brother, the Earl of Cornwall, who had recently arrived from England, reproached him for some highly aggravated cruelties inflicted on the inhabitants of the western counties on his route to Perth. The earl repelling the accusation, a violent altercation ensued, in the heat of which the king drew his dagger, and stabbed him to the heart. In 1339, the regent, Robert Stuart, afterwards king, who had succeeded to the regency on the death of the Earl of Murray, besieged the castle of Perth, at that time defended by an English garrison; but it had been so strongly and so skilfully fortified by Edward, that, after three months' siege, he resolved to give up the enterprise. At this moment, however, Douglas, Lord Liddesdale, who had been sent to France on an embassy to David Bruce, returning with several ships and a plentiful supply of men and provisions, Robert renewed the contest with vigour. Douglas, in attempting an escalade, was severely wounded, and the castle still held out for a considerable time; but at length, the Earl of Ross, having contrived to drain off the water from the fosse, opened a passage for the assailants by land, and the governor, Sir Thomas Ochtred, finding the place no longer tenable, surrendered it on honourable terms, after having sustained a second siege of one month. Not long after this time, a deadly feud arose between the powerful clans of the Mc Intoshes and the Mc Kays; and Robert III. sent the Earls of Dunbar and Crawfurd with a strong force, to reduce them to order, for which purpose they proposed to the chiefs to select thirty men from each clan to decide the contest at Perth, in presence of the king. On this occasion, one of the Mc Intoshes was not forthcoming, and his place was taken by a saddler of the town named Wynd, upon condition of receiving half a French dollar of gold. After a sanguinary battle, in which twentynine of the Mc Kays were killed, the surviving individual, seeing no hope of victory over Wynd and the ten remaining Mc Intoshes, bursting from the lists, swam across the Tay, and made his escape. In 1437, James I. was barbarously assassinated in the monastery of the Black Friars, by Walter, Earl of Atholl, Robert Stuart his grandson, and Sir Robert Graham, who were subsequently taken, and executed, after being put to the torture: the mangled remains of the king were interred in the Carthusian monastery, which he had founded in 1429. In 1512, the plague committed dreadful havoc in the city; and for the purpose of arresting its spread, a proclamation was issued by James V. to the magistrates, a copy of which is still preserved among the records.

The doctrines of the Reformation were eagerly embraced by the citizens of Perth, on their earliest introduction; and to check their progress, Cardinal Beaton, with the bishops and clergy, obtained under the sanction of the Regent Hamilton, Earl of Arran, a commission for the punishment of such of the inhabitants as maintained the new opinions. For this object, the cardinal and Hamilton came to Perth to hold a court for the trial of heretics, when Robert Lamb, with his wife, and eight others of the citizens, were convicted, and confined in the Spey Tower. Intercession was made for them by a number of the people, who, relying upon the promise of Hamilton that they should be pardoned, peaceably dispersed; but the cardinal, who had the regent under his own influence, insisted on their execution, and the men were consequently hanged, and the woman drowned. In 1559, John Knox, the reformer, having returned from Geneva, visited Perth, and preached in the church of St. John a sermon in which he vehemently condemned the idolatry of the Romish Church. After the conclusion of the service, the congregation were quietly dispersing, when, a priest coming forward and preparing to celebrate the mass, those of the congregation that still remained were exasperated into open violence: they defaced the altar, broke the images, and destroyed the other ornaments of the church; and afterwards proceeded to the monasteries, which they plundered, and almost levelled with the ground. The queen, incensed at the destruction of the monasteries, and more especially at that of the Carthusians, in which were enshrined the ashes of her ancestors, advanced to Perth with an army consisting chiefly of French troops, to punish the authors of that violence. But the adherents of the Reformation, animated with zeal for the maintenance of their religious principles, assembled in a body to defend the town, and were sufficiently numerous to face the army of the queen, commanded by D'Oysel, the French general. A mutual accommodation, therefore, took place, by which it was stipulated that both armies should be disbanded, and the gates of the city opened to the queen, who entered on the 29th of May; but after the Protestant army had dispersed, the queen introduced the French forces, dismissed the magistracy, and re-established the old religion. The citizens, upon this, again assembled a considerable force, and, imploring the aid of the lords of the congregation without delay, Argyll, Ruthven, and others marched to their assistance, summoned the garrison to surrender, and, on their refusal, laid siege to the place. Ruthven attacked the town on the west, and Provost Halyburton, with his men from Dundee, played on it with artillery from the bridge; the garrison capitulated on the 26th of June, and the reformers, assembling in great numbers, went forward to Scone, destroyed the palace and the abbey, and set fire to the village.

In 1600, James VI., then residing at Falkland, was while on a hunting party allured by John Ruthven, Earl of Gowrie, and his brother Alexander, to the castle of that nobleman in Perth, and detained there for some hours as a prisoner till rescued by his attendants, who, in the scuffle that ensued, killed the earl and his brother. Three of Gowrie's attendants, being convicted of assisting him in an attempt on the king's life, were afterwards executed at Perth. The exact nature of this transaction has never been satisfactorily explained, though it is generally supposed that the object of the earl was, to extort from the king some concessions in favour of the Presbyterians. In 1651, the citizens raised a body of 100 men, whom they marched to Burntisland to watch the movements of Cromwell, who with a fleet and army had some time before arrived in Scotland; and being soon afterwards joined by a detachment of the royal army at Dunfermline, they were attacked by a superior number of Cromwell's forces, which had landed at the Frith of Forth under the command of General Lambert. An obstinate battle ensued, in which the Scots were defeated: such of the citizens as escaped returned to Perth, which they fortified against the usurper; while the king with his army retreated to Stirling, on his route to England. Cromwell and General Lambert, advancing towards Perth, halted for one night at Fordel, and on the following morning appeared before the gates of the city, which they summoned to surrender; but the inhabitants assumed an air of contemptuous defiance, and Cromwell, thinking them more powerful than they were, offered honourable conditions, and the gates were opened to admit him. In order to keep the citizens in awe, he built a citadel on the South Inch, for the erection of which he demolished the walls of the convent of Grey Friars, removed 300 tombstones from the cemetery, destroyed the school-house and 400 dwellings, pulled down the ancient cross, and took away even the buttresses of the bridge, to furnish the materials. The building was a quadrangle, inclosing an area 266 feet in length and of equal breadth, with a circular bastion at each of the angles; and was surrounded by a moat. In 1715, the Pretender, under the title of the Chevalier de St. George, made Perth his head-quarters, but was soon dislodged by the Duke of Argyll; and in 1745 Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, was proclaimed king in the town. He made a new election of magistrates, and endeavoured to fortify the place; but he was shortly defeated by the forces under the Duke of Cumberland, to whom the provost and council presented the ancient castle of Gowrie, in honour of his victory over the rebels. In 1842, the city was visited by Her present Majesty, accompanied by Prince Albert, arriving here in the afternoon of the 6th of September. At the South Port they were received by the magistrates and council, and the lord provost presented the keys of the city, which were returned; the gates were then thrown open, and the royal cortége passed under a magnificent triumphal arch, and proceeded through the city, the streets of which were occupied by multitudes of people, interspersed with the various public bodies of the place, in their appropriate dresses. In the evening, Her Majesty honoured Lord Mansfield with her presence at dinner, at Scone.

The town is beautifully situated on the western bank of the Tay, over which is a handsome bridge of ten arches, built in 1771 to replace the ancient structure, destroyed by an inundation of the river in 1621. The present bridge is more than 900 feet in length, and about twenty-two feet in width between the parapets, and was completed under the superintendence of the architect Smeaton, at an expense of £27,000, chiefly through the exertions of the Earl of Kinnoull; affording a communication with the populous village of Bridgend, and with the road to Dundee. The streets are spacious and regularly formed; and the houses, especially those of more modern erection, are substantial and handsomely built. The principal streets, High-street and South-street, intersect the city from east to west in a parallel direction: crossing these at right angles are, Speygate, Watergate, and George-street, in a line with each other, the last leading to the bridge; also Princes-street, Kirkgate, and Skinnergate. Still further westward are the pile of New-row, and some pleasing villas at the extremity of the city; while on the north side are several handsome streets, crescents, and terraces of recent date. Perth is lighted with gas from works erected in 1824, at an expense of £19,000; and the inhabitants are supplied with water from works established in 1830, at a cost of £13,609: the water, filtered from the river, is conveyed into a spacious reservoir at the eastern end of Marshall-place, and forced by steam into a lofty circular tower, which forms a great ornament. The ancient cross, situated in the centre of High-street, and demolished by Cromwell, as already observed, in 1652, was rebuilt after the restoration of Charles II.; but being found an obstruction to the public thoroughfare, it was removed in 1765, and the materials sold by order of the magistrates. Of the walls of Perth, scarcely a vestige is remaining; and of the several towers by which the gates were defended, the last, the Spey Tower, was taken down at the commencement of the present century. Adjoining the town, on each side, are spacious greens called respectively the North and South Inch. The former, which is on the margin of the river, was considerably enlarged in 1785, and forms a beautiful appendage to the city. On the west side of this green is the ancient mansion of Balhousie, embosomed in lofty and venerable trees, above which is an old mill driven by water from the canal originally formed from the Almond for supplying the fosse by which the town walls were surrounded; and on the east of the green is a fine level race-course, more than a mile and a quarter in length. The South Inch is surrounded with avenues of trees, and interspersed with pleasing villas, and has on the north side Marshall-place and King's-place, and on the west the villas of St. Leonard's Bank: the high road to Edinburgh passes through the centre of this green, between stately trees. The approaches to Perth on every side are beautifully picturesque; and from many points the city, in combination with its noble river and the sylvan scenery upon its banks, has an air of impressive magnificence.

There are six circulating libraries, of which the principal is the Perth Library, instituted in 1786, and supported by annual subscriptions of fifteen shillings; it contains about 6000 volumes, which are kept in an apartment appropriated to its use in the building called Marshall's Monument, and is under the care of a librarian who attends for two hours daily. The Exchange Coffee-house in George-street is well supported. There are three weekly newspapers published: of these, the Courier was established in 1809, the Advertiser in 1820, and the Constitutional in 1835. The Literary and Antiquarian Society was founded in 1784 by the Rev. James Scott, and is under the direction of a president and committee. It has an extensive and valuable collection of scarce and interesting books, manuscripts, coins, and medals, with various other antiquities and relics illustrative of the history of Scotland; and it has received many additions from natives of the county, and from its president, Lord Breadalbane. Its annual meetings are held in the hall assigned to its use in Marshall's Monument, when papers on literary, scientific, and antiquarian subjects are read before the society, prior to being deposited in the library. The building styled Marshall's Monument was erected by public subscription of the citizens, in honour of their provost, the late Thomas Hay Marshall, Esq., of Glenalmond; and is an elegant structure in the Grecian style of architecture, of circular form, surmounted by a spacious dome, and embellished with a portico of the Ionic order: it is finely situated at the north end of George-street. The Theatre was built in 1820, at an expense of £2625, but is not much frequented. The Freemasons' Hall, erected in 1818, on the site of the ancient house of parliament, is a handsome building, and contains a large hall occasionally used for public auctions. The races, which are held annually, are well attended. The barracks, originally intended for cavalry, but now fitted up for infantry, were erected in 1793, at the western extremity of Atholl-street; they form a neat range of buildings, and are well adapted to their purpose. The extensive depôt erected by government in 1812, at an expense of £130,000, and capable of receiving 7000 prisoners of war, has been recently converted into a penitentiary.

Among the principal manufactures carried on in the town and its vicinity are those of gingham, muslin, shawls, cotton goods and linens, handkerchiefs, scarfs, and trimmings, in which more than 1600 persons are employed. Of the ginghams, those for the making of umbrellas are most produced, and great quantities are forwarded to London and Manchester, and to other towns in England; the rest of the manufactures are chiefly exported to North and South America, and the East and West Indies, and many of the shawl pieces are sent to Turkey. A mill for spinning flax and tow has been lately established, in which were at first but 850 spindles, and the number of persons employed was only one hundred, the greater portion of whom were females; but the number of spindles has been augmented to 1250, and the number of persons proportionally increased. In the neighbourhood are extensive bleachfields and printing establishments. There are several breweries and distilleries, and numerous corn-mills; the Perth and St. John's iron-foundries, and some brass-foundries, are in operation on a large scale; and there are rope-walks, tanneries, and dye-works, in which considerable numbers of persons are engaged. The manufacture of bricks and tiles is extensive; and there are several coach-building establishments, and some saw-mills worked by steam for the preparation of timber, with which the neighbourhood abounds, for various uses.

The trade of the port consists chiefly in exporting agricultural produce to the London market, principally potatoes, which are said to have been first grown here on their introduction into Scotland, and of which the quantity annually shipped is about 30,000 tons: of grain of various kinds, 40,000 quarters are exported; and a considerable quantity of timber and slates is sent off. From the proximity of Dundee, the manufacturing produce is generally forwarded to that place in lighters for exportation. The imports consist chiefly of flax, clover seeds, and linseed, cheese, foreign spirits, bark, hides, madder, tar, Norway, Baltic, and American timber, bones for manure, salt, lime, and coal from England and different parts of Scotland. The number of ships registered as belonging to the port, in 1843, was ninetyfour, and their aggregate burthen 9624 tons; and the number of vessels that entered in a recent year was 758, of which twenty-two were from foreign ports, and 736 coasting-vessels. The duties paid at the custom-house in 1843 amounted to £13,481. The harbour, at first near the bridge, was in 1752 removed lower down the river; but, though at that period accessible to ships of tolerable size, it was in the course of a few years, from its want of depth, frequented only by small craft. In 1830, therefore, considerable improvements were projected by Mr. Jardine, and a commodious pier was constructed; but the works were discontinued, and the original improvements not carried into effect, till 1834. At that time others, also, on a more extended scale, including the deepening of the river from Newburgh to Perth, the removal of several fords by dredging machines, and the construction of a tide harbour, a ship canal, and wet-docks, rendering the harbour accessible in springtides to vessels of 380, and at neap-tides of 130, tons, were adopted by the town-council at the suggestion of the Messrs. Stevenson, and are now in progress, with every prospect of being fully accomplished. The tide harbour has been completed; vessels of 300 tons now reach Perth with ease, and the amount of the shipping belonging to the port is on the increase. Ship-building is carried on here to a very considerable extent, the surrounding country affording abundance of timber; and several vessels of 500 tons have been built in the dockyards. A ship-building company was established in 1838, chiefly through the great impulse communicated by the firm of the Messrs. Graham, who in their commercial transactions employ vessels of their own, of which the aggregate burthen exceeds 2400 tons. The first iron steam-boat on the eastern coast of Scotland was made here, in the foundry of Messrs. A. Mc Farlane and Sons: this vessel, which plies on the river, between Perth and Dundee, is 112 feet in length, and, with 500 passengers on board, draws three feet water, being propelled by an engine of seventy-horse power. Since that time, several iron and other steam-vessels have been launched from the port.

The salmon-fishery of the Tay is carried on with very encouraging success. The whole of the fisheries on the river afford employment to nearly 500 men; and the average number of fish taken annually at this place only is 25,000 salmon, and 50,000 grilse, all of which are exported direct to the London markets. With a view to promote the commerce and manufactures of the town, there are two provincial banks established, namely, the Perth and the Central Banks, with branches of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Company, the Commercial, and the National Banks. A savings' bank was founded in 1815; the amount of deposits is above £4000. The post is frequent; and the revenue of the office formerly amounted on an average to about £4000. Facility of communication with the towns of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, and Dunkeld, is afforded by excellent roads diverging from the city; and these means of intercourse will be vastly increased by the construction of the Scottish-Central, Dundee and Perth, Edinburgh and Northern, and Scottish-Midland-Junction railways, the statutes authorising which were all passed in the session of the year 1845, so remarkable for its railway projects. The works connected with these important undertakings are in active progress, and all the four lines pass through, or terminate in, the city as a common centre. The general market, which is on Friday, is plentifully supplied with corn and provisions of every kind; and there is a market on Wednesday, also well attended. Fairs are held on the first Fridays in March, April, and July, and the second Friday in December, for horses and cattle; on the first Friday in September, for the hiring of servants and general business; and on the third Friday in October, for cattle, horses, and cheese.

The government of the burgh, by a succession of charters from its erection into a royal burgh by William the Lion to the time of James VI., who confirmed all previous grants, was till lately vested in a provost, dean of guild, three merchant-bailies, and one trades'-bailie, a treasurer, and nine merchant and three trades' councillors, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers. The present magistrates are, a provost, a dean of guild, four bailies, and a treasurer; and the number of councillors is now nineteen. The ancient seal, which bore upon the obverse the decollation of St. John the Baptist, and on the reverse the enshrinement of that saint, was disused after the Reformation, and the present seal, alluding to the foundation of the town by the Romans, adopted in its stead. The provost, the bailies, and other officers, are elected by the council from among their own body; and the council, under the Municipal Reform act, are chosen by the £10 householders: the dean of guild is elected by the guildry, or merchants' incorporation. There are seven incorporated trades, the hammermen, bakers, glovers, wrights, tailors, fleshers, and shoemakers, in which the fees for admission vary from £1 to £4 for the sons of freemen, and from £20 to £100 for strangers. The jurisdiction of the magistrates extends over the whole of the royalty, of which, however, the limits are not clearly defined. The provost, who is also sheriff and coroner, with the bailies, holds burgh courts regularly every week, upon Tuesday, for the determination of civil causes; there is also a court holden for the recovery of small debts; and a court of guildry is held monthly, and occasionally at other times. The criminal jurisdiction of the magistrates is rarely, if at all, exercised; though it extends to capital offences, and there are instances on record of persons having suffered the extreme penalty of the law. The burgh, previously to the passing of the Reform act, sent a member to the imperial parliament in conjunction with those of Dundee, Cupar, Forfar, and St. Andrew's; but since that period it has returned its own representative.

The County Buildings, which are conveniently situated at the end of South-street, near the margin of the river, were erected in 1819, at a cost of £32,000, after a design by Mr. Smirke; they form an elegant structure of freestone in the Grecian style, of which the principal front has a stately portico of twelve fluted columns, supporting an entablature and cornice surmounted by a triangular pediment. The centre comprises the court of justice, of semicircular form, sixty-six feet in length, and containing a gallery for the accommodation of 1000 persons: behind the bench are the judges' rooms and rooms for witnesses; and leading from the bar is a flight of steps communicating with a subterraneous passage from the prison. The county-hall, which occupies the south wing, is a handsome apartment sixty-eight feet long and forty feet wide, elegantly fitted up, and embellished with portraits of the late Duke of Atholl and the late Lord Lynedoch by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and one of Sir George Murray by Wilkie; the committeeroom is thirty feet square, and on the floor above is a tea and card room forty-four feet long and thirty feet wide, with other apartments. The sheriff's-court and clerk's offices form the north wing; and above them are, an office for the collector of cess, and a fire-proof room in which the city and county records are deposited. Behind the County Buildings is the new City and County Prison, inclosed within a lofty wall, and containing two divisions, one for debtors, and the other for criminals; the latter has ten cells and one large dayroom, with an airing-yard, for males, and three cells, a day-room, and airing-yard, for females. The governor's house is in the centre; but the prison is not well adapted for classification. The old prison has been fitted up partly for a police office, and partly as a house of correction; it contains eight cells, of which one is appropriated to refractory prisoners. The inmates are employed at their ordinary trades, and on leaving the prison receive a portion of their earnings.

The rural district, which is bounded on the east, like the town, by the river Tay, and on the north by the Almond, comprises 3410 acres, whereof more than 2500 are arable, about 750 woodland and plantations, chiefly of pine and larch, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface is diversified with ridges of moderate elevation, and with several hills, of which that of Moncrieff rises to the height of 756 feet above the level of the sea; the scenery is varied, combining features of beautifully picturesque and strikingly romantic character, and the view of the surrounding country from the summit of Moncrieff hill is one of the most interesting in Scotland. The soil in the uplands is a rich loam, and along the Tay a fertile clay resting upon gravel, and is well adapted for grain of every kind. The system of agriculture is highly improved; draining has been extensively practised, and the lands lying on the side of the river have been protected from inundation by effective embankments. The farm-buildings, also, are generally substantial and commodious; but little inclosure has taken place, and what fences there are, are chiefly of stone. The substratum is mostly of the red sandstone formation, which extends throughout the vales of Strathearn and Strathmore. Nodules of granite, primitive limestone, and porphyritic trap, are frequently imbedded in the sandstone, but no organic remains: trap-rocks and an extensive bed of conglomerate are found in the southern parts of the district. There are some quarries of freestone, and one appears to have been largely wrought; but the stone is of soft texture, and the buildings which have been erected of it have soon become ruinous. There are also quarries of trap-stone of durable texture, affording excellent materials for the roads. The rateable annual value of the town and rural district, according to the returns made under the income-tax, is £56,539.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the synod of Perth and Stirling and presbytery of Perth; the former holding their meetings alternately at Stirling and here. The parish of St. John the Baptist was formerly the only one, and the ancient church was supplied by but one minister till the year 1595, when a second was appointed; in 1716 a third minister was appointed by the town-council, to meet the wants of a rapidly increasing population, and the church was converted into three separate churches, called respectively East, Middle, and West. Since that period the parish has been divided into several parishes, and the churches of St. Paul, St. Leonard, and St. Stephen erected. The parish of East Church comprises nearly the whole of the rural district, the town having been parted from the original parish of Perth, by authority of the Court of Teinds, in 1807; it is about five miles in length and two miles in breadth, and contains a population of 7031. The minister's stipend is, £130 in money paid by the corporation, and eighty bolls of meal and seventy bolls of barley paid by the heritors, together equivalent to £255: there is neither manse nor glebe. The ancient church of St. John the Baptist, of which the choir is appropriated as the church for this parish, is a very ancient structure in the early English style of architecture, with a massive square tower surmounted by a spire 155 feet in height. After it was given to the abbey of Dunfermline in 1226, it was suffered to fall into dilapidation, but was repaired and partly restored by King Robert Bruce; the eastern portion was afterwards rebuilt, and in 1400 the whole of the edifice was in good repair. The numerous altars at various times erected within it were, with the exception of the high altar, at the east end of the choir, subsequently removed. In the tower is a set of musical chimes. The portion of this venerable structure which forms the East church contains 1286 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, Original Burghers, and Glassites, and a Roman Catholic chapel, in the parish; also some Sabbath schools in connexion with the Established Church and dissenting congregations. The parish of Middle Church, which is wholly a town parish, is about 250 yards in length and 160 yards in breadth, and was formed in 1807 by authority of the Court of Teinds: the population is 4498. The minister's stipend is, eighty bolls of meal and seventy of barley paid by the heritors, and £130 paid by the corporation, who are patrons of this and the East, West, and St. Paul's churches; the whole income being equivalent to £255. The church consists chiefly of the area between the four massive and lofty columns that support the tower of St. John's, and which was fitted up for the purpose in 1771; it contains 1208 sittings, and has some interesting details. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the South United Secession, Original Seceders, the First Relief, and Baptists.

The parish of West Church, almost entirely in the town, is about half a mile long and nearly equal in width; it was formed by the Court of Teinds in the year 1807, and contains 5024 inhabitants. The minister's stipend is £200, payable by the corporation: the church consists of the nave of the collegiate church of St. John, and retains many vestiges of its ancient character, among which is a fine west window; it contains 967 sittings. There are a Free church and an episcopal chapel. The parish of St. Paul, wholly a town parish, was formed also by the Court of Teinds, is about a mile in length and a quarter of a mile in breadth, and has a population of 2740: the minister's stipend is £200, paid by the corporation. The church, which is situated on the confines of the parish, is a handsome structure in a modern style of architecture, with a tower surmounted by an elegant spire; it was erected by the corporation in 1806, at an expense of £7000, and contains 884 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, for the North United Secession, and for Independents. The late parish of St. Leonard was separated for ecclesiastical purposes only from the parishes of East and West Church, by act of the General Assembly, in 1835; it was about half a mile in length and one-eighth of a mile in breadth, and chiefly a town parish, with a population of 3039. The minister's stipend was £100, with an allowance of £20 for communion elements, all paid by the congregation from the seat-rents: there was neither manse nor glebe. The church, situated in King-street, is a handsome structure erected in 1835, at an expense of £2450, raised by subscription and donations; and contains 960 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the "Holy Catholic Apostolic" congregation, the Second Relief, and General Baptists. The incumbency of St. Stephen's was created by act of the General Assembly, in 1836; it has no definite area, but comprehends all the Highland population scattered within a distance of four miles from the church, which was built for their accommodation. The minister's stipend was originally fixed at £80, secured by bond, but without either manse or glebe. The church was erected by voluntary subscription and donations; it contains 762 sittings, and the service is of course invariably performed in the Gaelic language.

The Grammar School is of ancient foundation, and is under the superintendence of a rector and his assistant, of whom the former has a salary of £50, and the latter of £25, paid by the corporation, who are patrons of all the public schools of the town; the course of instruction comprises the Latin and Greek languages, ancient geography, history, and other subjects. The Academy, originally instituted in 1760, and for which a very handsome building has been erected in the centre of Rose-terrace, is under the care of a rector and an assistant, with salaries respectively of £100 and £25; the course includes arithmetic, algebra, geometry, surveying, mathematics, navigation, natural philosophy, astronomy, and chemistry. There are, under the same patronage, a school for the French, Italian, and Spanish languages, of which the master has a salary of £25; a school for writing and arithmetic, and one for drawing and painting, of which the masters have each a salary of £25; a school for English, of which the master receives likewise £25 a year; and a school for singing and church music, of which the master has £15. In these several schools the fees vary from £1.8. to £4. 6. for the whole term of ten months and a half. There are also endowed schools for the Trades, the master of which receives a salary of £76; and for the poor, with a salary of £50. The Manufacturers' school, of which the master is paid £20; the Guildry school, with a salary of £26; two infant schools, of which the mistresses have each £50; and a female school, of which the mistress receives a salary of £20, are all supported by subscription. A sum of £400 was raised a few years since for building additional schools for the poor, to which a grant of £400 was added by the treasury; the masters have a salary of £10, paid by the corporation, and the fees, which vary from sixpence to eightpence per month for each scholar. Altogether there are thirty-five schools in the town and parish, in which the various branches of education are taught; and numerous Sabbath schools in connexion with the Established Church and seceding congregrations. The Hospital founded and amply endowed by James VI., in 1569, with all the lands and revenues of the dissolved monasteries, chapels, and altars in the city, was destroyed by Cromwell in 1652; and the building near the site of the Carthusian monastery, erected in its stead, has, with the exception of the master's apartments and the room containing the records, been appropriated to other purposes, and the inmates made out-pensioners. The annual proceeds of the endowment, which has been greatly diminished, are £597. 8. 6., divided among more than sixty pensioners.

The City and County Infirmary, at the extremity of South-street, on the new Glasgow road, is a spacious and handsome structure, erected in 1836 from a design by Mr. Mackenzie, architect; and contains wards and accommodation for fifty-six patients. The institution possesses funds of considerable value, derived from donations and bequests, of which £500 were left by Dr. Browne; £600 were appropriated to its use from a bequest of £3000, by the first marquess of Breadalbane, to the public charities of Perth; and £400 subsequently added by the second marquess. It is also supported by subscription. The Royal Lunatic Asylum, not far from Perth, which has been incorporated by royal charter, was commenced in 1827, and greatly enlarged in 1834; it is a handsome structure of the Grecian Doric order, from a design by Mr. Burn, of Edinburgh. The building, which is 256 feet in length, and three stories high, is beautifully situated on an eminence on Kinnoull hill, commanding a view of the Grampian hills, the river Tay, and the adjacent country; and is surrounded with a fine park of twelve acres. The funds for its erection and partial endowment were bequeathed by James Murray, Esq., of Perth; and the institution is further supported by donations. In 1660 James Butter, sheriffclerk of Perthshire, left two-fifths of the lands of Scone-Lethendy, for the maintenance of four poor persons of Perth; in 1686 Mr. Jackson devised one-tenth of the same lands, for the support of one poor relative, or, in failure of such, of a person of the name of Jackson; and in 1743 Mr. Cairnie bequeathed two-fifths of the lands to the poor of Perth, reserving two-thirds to two of his descendants nearest to the age of fourteen years. This property comprises 610 acres, of which 145 are under plantation, and produces a rental of £513. 8. 6. Two persons of the name of Cairnie receive together £130, and the hospital £50; twelve annuitants receive £170, and the remainder is reserved for the liquidation of a debt of £1500, incurred by the erection of buildings and the improvement of the lands. Considerable sums are distributed to the poor by the incorporated trades, amounting in the aggregate to more than £2000 annually; and there were formerly numerous friendly societies, of which the greater number have been discontinued. The Destitute Sick Society, the Aged and Indigent Female Society, the Society for Clothing Indigent Females, and the Society for Clothing Aged Men, also distribute large sums in relieving the poor throughout the city.

Among the numerous religious houses destroyed at the Reformation, was the monastery of the Black Friars, founded by Alexander II. in 1231, and, after the demolition of the castle of Perth, the residence of the Scottish kings till the removal of the seat of government to Edinburgh in the reign of James II.: in its church the parliament occasionally assembled. The monastery of the White Friars was instituted in the reign of Alexander III.: the revenues were eventually annexed to the hospital of James VI. The Carthusian monastery was founded by James I. in 1429, and contained the tombs of the founder, his queen, and Queen Margaret, mother of James V.; the Franciscan monastery was founded in 1460 by Lord Oliphant, and in 1580 its site was appropriated as the common cemetery of the parish. There were the nunneries of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Leonard, with their chapels, and the hospital of the latter; also numerous chapels, of which that of Our Lady forms part of the old prison: the chapel of St. Lawerence belonged to the ancient castle; and those of St. Anne, St. James, St. Paul, the Holy Cross, and St. Katherine, had attached hospitals for the entertainment of the poor.

In 1807 some workmen, when digging for the foundation of St. Paul's church, discovered, at about ten feet below the surface, a portion of well-built masonry extending from north to south, and in the front of which were several massive rings and staples of iron, seeming evidently to have been erected as a pier. The surface of the street in this place has an elevation of twentythree feet above the level of the river. At some distance, in a northern direction, in Stormont-street, two willow-trees were found standing erect at a depth of twenty feet: another tree of the same kind, also erect, was discovered at a depth of eight feet. In digging the foundations for houses at a more recent date, some rich black earth was found, in which were imbedded small cuttings of leather, a spur of antique form, a pair of scissors, a small copper shield with a bend dexter, and various other articles. Pavements have also been met with, at a depth of even ten feet below the present pavements; and in erecting the buildings on the south side of the church, occupied by Mr. Ballingall, a boat about ten feet long was found imbedded in a layer of black earth, resting on its keel, with a caulking-iron and the soles of shoes near it. All these appearances indicate the elevation of the site of the town subsequently to the inundations of 1210 and 1621, by which it was nearly overwhelmed. Among the eminent characters connected with the city have been, the Earls of Gowrie, Atholl, and Erroll, Lord John Murray, Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, and Lord Chancellor Hay, all of whom had houses in Perth; Halyburton, bishop of Dunkeld; Patrick Adamson, bishop of St. Andrew's, who was born in 1536, and educated at the grammar school, and who was author of the tragedy of Herod Agrippa, and a poetic paraphrase on the Lamentations of Jeremiah; Mylne, a celebrated architect, and father of Robert Mylne, the architect of Blackfriars bridge, London; and James Crichton, commonly called the Admirable, who is supposed to have received his early education in the grammar school. The last-named is thought to have been born at Eliock House, in the county of Dumfries; but soon after his birth, which occurred in 1560, his father removed to an estate in the parish of Clunie, only seventeen miles from Perth.

Saturday, 22 December 2007

Ancestry Tours of Oban Scotland

Oban, Scotland, is an important ferry port, being the main terminal for Caledonian MacBrayne. Oban is often known as the Gateway to the Scottish Isles, with ferries sailing to the islands of Lismore, Colonsay, Islay, Coll, Tiree, Craignure on Mull, and to Castlebay in Barra and Lochboisdale in South Uist. Tour Oban Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Oban in 1846. Oban, a burgh of barony, a sea-port town, and lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Kilmore and Kilbride, district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 32 miles (W. N. W.) from Inverary, and 136 (W. by N.) from Edinburgh; containing 1554 inhabitants, of whom 1398 are in the burgh. This place, which is situated on the western coast of Mid Lorn, at the head of a fine bay formed by the island of Kerrera, on the west, and having facilities of entrance on the north and south, owes its origin to the establishment of a storehouse in 1713, by a company of merchants from Renfrew, attracted by the convenience of its position for trade, and the safe and extensive accommodations of its bay. It was much increased in importance in 1778, by the Messrs. Stevenson, who, settling here, introduced several branches of traffic, which added greatly to the number of buildings; and during the same century, the place was constituted one of the custom-house ports. The town is beautifully seated on the banks of a small river which divides it into two parts; and, as approached either by sea or by land, has a strikingly picturesque and interesting aspect. It consists of various well-formed streets of neat and substantial houses: and in the main street is an extensive and commodious hotel, for the reception of the visiters and families who resort hither during the season for seabathing, and for whose accommodation there are also comfortable lodging-houses.

The manufacture of silk and straw hats is carried on to a considerable extent; and there are two large distilleries in the town. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of wool, kelp, pig-iron, fish, whisky, and slates from the quarries of the surrounding district; and in the importation of merchandise from Glasgow and Liverpool. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port is thirteen, of the aggregate burthen of 360 tons. The bay, which is sheltered from all winds by lofty mountains, has from twelve to twenty-four fathoms' depth, and is sufficiently capacious to contain more than 500 sail of trading vessels. There are two spacious quays, of which that on the north was enlarged and improved in 1836; and since the opening of the Caledonian canal, steamers from Greenock, Glasgow, Inverness, Mull, Iona, Staffa, and Skye, constantly touch at the port. The custom-house, erected in 1763, occupies a commanding site overlooking the bay. The post-office has a good delivery. A branch of the National Bank of Scotland, a savings' bank, four insurance agencies, and an excise-office, have been established. Markets are annually held in May and October for black-cattle, and in March and November for horses.

The town was first erected into a burgh of barony by charter granted to the Duke of Argyll in 1811, and subsequently by a new charter granted to the duke, and also to Mr. Campbell, in 1820. The government was once vested in a provost, two bailies, and four councillors annually chosen by the burgesses; but since the passing of the Municipal Reform act, six councillors have been elected by the £10 householders, of whom two are bailies; and the office of provost has been set aside. The jurisdiction of the magistrates is coextensive with the whole territory of the burgh, which exceeds that of the parliamentary limits; but, except in cases of petty delinquency, the magistrates exercise no criminal jurisdiction; and since the establishment of the sheriff's-court for small debts, which is held quarterly, few civil actions have been tried before them. The burgh is associated with those of Ayr, Campbelltown, Inverary, and Irvine, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is sixty-four. The late parish, which for ecclesiastical purposes was separated from Kilmore and Kilbride by act of the General Assembly in 1834, included the town of Oban and adjacent district, comprising an area nearly six square miles in extent. The church, built as a chapel of ease in 1821, at an expense of £1142, is a neat structure containing 530 sittings: the minister has a stipend of £100, derived from the seat-rents and an annual donation of £20 by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, United Secession, and Independents; and a congregation of about forty Baptists assemble in a private room. Subscriptions to the amount of £310 have been collected for the erection of an additional parochial school-house, on a site purchased for the purpose; and a grant of £150 has been obtained from government.

Sunday, 16 December 2007

Ancestry Tours of Inverness Scotland

Inverness is located where the River Ness enters the Moray Firth in Scotland. Inverness Castle sits on a cliff overlooking the River Ness. Tour Inverness, Scotland, on an Ancestry Tour of Scotland. Best Scottish Tours, Best Scottish Food, Best Scottish Hotels, Small Group Tours of Scotland. Rent a Cottage in Scotland. Inverness in 1846. Inverness, a royal burgh, sea-port town, and parish, in the county of Inverness, of which it is the chief town, 156 miles (N. N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Balloch, Clachnaharry, Culcaboch, Hilton, Resawrie, and Smithtown of Culloden, 15,418 inhabitants, of whom 9100 are in the burgh. This place, which derives its name from its situation near the mouth of the river Ness, is the largest and most flourishing town in the Highlands, of which it may be considered as the capital. It is supposed to have been the ancient metropolis of the kingdom of the Picts, and the residence of their kings previously to the union of the Picts and Scots in the reign of Kenneth II.; and to have been visited, in the sixth century, by St. Columba, for the conversion of the inhabitants to the Christian religion. The Castle, for many years the occasional residence of the Scottish kings, is identified by Shakespeare as the scene of the murder of Duncan by Macbeth, lord of Ross and Moray, though, by most historians, the perpetration of that crime is said to have taken place in the vicinity of Elgin. It was razed to the ground, about the middle of the 11th century, by Duncan's son, Malcolm Camnore, who erected, near the site, a strong fortress which was held for the king by one of the most powerful of the nobility, with a view to keep the inhabitants of this Highland district in subjection. Soon after the completion of this castle, some houses were raised in its immediate neighbourhood; and a town gradually arose, which, under its protection, increased in extent and importance, and was frequently visited by the kings. Though often plundered by the inhabitants of the Isles and by the Highlanders, the town continued to prosper; and in the 13th century, it had attained a considerable degree of commercial consequence, being inhabited by numerous Flemings and Saxons, who had settled here, and who carried on a lucrative trade in the exportation of hides, malt, and various kinds of fish.

In 1303, the castle was besieged and taken by Edward I. of England; but it was soon afterwards retaken by the adherents of Robert Bruce, who was then raising forces in the Western Islands, to assert his right to the throne; and it remained in the possession of his successors, kings of Scotland, till the reign of James I. In 1411, the town was plundered by Donald, Lord of the Isles, who, in his march from the battle of Harlaw, set fire to the castle, which was nearly destroyed; it was, however, restored by the king, who repaired the fortifications, and made the chief of the Macintosh family, descended from one of the earls of Fife, governor. The castle continued for some time to be a place for the confinement of state prisoners, and, in 1508, was placed under the command of the Earl of Huntly, who was also created heritable sheriff of the county. On the insurrection of a succeeding earl, in 1562, Mary, Queen of Scots, in her progress to the north to quell the rebellion, came to Inverness with a few attendants, and, being refused admission into the castle, at that time held in her name by the insurgent earl, lodged in a house at the base of the fortress. From this perilous situation the queen was relieved by the Frasers, Monroes, and Mackenzies, whom her proclamation had brought to her assistance; the castle was compelled to surrender, and the deputy-governor was executed on the spot. The queen, after remaining for four days in the castle, left the town, and retired to Aberdeen.

During the war in the reign of Charles I., the castle was an object of constant dispute between the contending parties. It was repeatedly besieged and taken for the king by the Marquess of Montrose, and as frequently retaken by his opponents: in 1649, it was nearly demolished by the royalists under Sir Thomas Urquhart; and during the same year, the town was seized by the royal forces under Generals Middleton and Monroe. The castle was, however, recaptured by Cromwell, who erected a strong fortress for the defence of the town, capable of accommodating 1000 men, to provide materials for which he destroyed the monasteries of Kingloss and Beauly, and all the religious houses in the neighbourhood. After the Restoration, this fortress was demolished, to conciliate the Highlanders, who had been held under powerful restraint, and severely annoyed, by the garrison of Cromwell; and several of the more ancient houses in the town were built with the materials. The royal castle which had been nearly demolished by Urquhart was, at the time of the Revolution, restored by government, at an expense of £50,000, and garrisoned, in order to keep the Highlanders in subjection. It was still further improved in 1718, by the erection of a house for the governor; and the whole of the buildings, called Fort George, formed a royal garrison under a governor chosen by the crown, an appointment held always by one of the principal of the nobility, and which, though it subsequently became merely nominal, was possessed by the Gordon family till the death of the last duke, in 1836. In 1745, the castle was assaulted by the forces under the command of Charles Edward, son of the Pretender, by whom it was taken and destroyed. That prince, on the night last but one before the battle of Culloden, which took place near the town, slept at the house of Lady Drummuir, in Church-street; and on the night after the battle, the Duke of Cumberland, who made Inverness his head-quarters, slept in the same house, which appears to have been almost the only one of any importance in the place. The circulation of money by the troops of the duke during their stay in the town, appears to have contributed greatly to its restoration from that state of decay into which, from the time of the Revolution, it had been gradually falling. The walls of the royal castle, which remained nearly entire for some years, have been removed, and the site converted into a bowling-green.

The Town is situated chiefly on the east bank of the river Ness, near its influx into the Moray Frith, and consists of several well-formed and spacious streets, crossing each other at right angles. The houses are generally substantial and well built, and many are large and of handsome appearance, the residence of opulent families; the streets are paved with granite, and the foot-paths laid with Caithness flags. The town is lighted with gas from works erected at an expense of £8757, by a company established under an act of parliament; and the inhabitants are supplied with water raised from the river by machinery, and distributed to the houses by pipes. There are several subscription and circulating libraries, and two public reading and news rooms, all well furnished with newspapers, of which three are published in the town, and with the most interesting periodical works. The Northern Institution for the promotion of science and literature, established here in 1825, has been discontinued; and its valuable library, and museum of antiquities and natural curiosities, have been presented to the directors of the Inverness Academy, for the use of the pupils. In Church-street is a plain neat building called the Northern Meeting Rooms, containing an elegant ballroom, in which card and dancing assemblies are held, a spacious dining-room, and other rooms, in which public meetings take place. Leading from the extremity of the High-street, is a handsome bridge of stone, of seven arches, erected in 1685, by subscription, at a cost of £1300, and connecting the principal part of the town with that portion of it which lies on the west bank of the river, and with the various suburbs in that vicinity. Above this is the new bridge, of wood, built in 1808, by private subscription, at an expense of £4000. The environs abound with interesting and pleasing scenery: in the river, which is here of great breadth, are two picturesque islands, beautifully laid out in lawns, shrubberies, and walks, connected with the opposite banks of the stream by suspension-bridges, and forming delightful promenades. There are several good family hotels in the town, of which the Caledonian hotel is very extensive, and elegantly fitted up; also numerous commodious inns and lodging-houses.

The chief manufacture carried on is that of cloth for bags, sacking, and tarpaulins, for the London market, and for exportation to the East and West Indies; about 300 persons are employed, of whom more than half are women. The weaving of Highland plaids and tartans is also pursued to a small extent, affording occupation to twenty-five persons; there are three tanneries, a distillery, and two public breweries; and about a hundred families are supported by the sawing of timber. The trade of the Port consists chiefly in the exportation of wool, grain, and hempen cloths; and the importation of hemp and timber from the Baltic, and tar from Archangel, of which last, upon an average, from 400 to 600 tons are annually landed. There are six vessels belonging to the port, of 130 tons' average burthen, employed in the trade with London; three in that of Leith; and two in that of Aberdeen: the custom duties in the year 1843 amounted to £4357. Since the completion of the Caledonian canal, the commerce of the town has been greatly extended, a direct line of intercourse having been thus opened with Glasgow and Liverpool, and with the manufacturing districts in their vicinity. The jurisdiction of the port, which is the head of the district, extends from the mouth of the river Spey to Dornoch Frith on the east, and from Assynt Point to Ardnamurchan on the west. The aggregate tonnage of the shipping of the whole district is about 8000 tons, of which nearly two-thirds belong to this place. The harbour, at the mouth of the river, is accessible to vessels of 250 tons; and ships of 500 tons can anchor with safety in the Kessock roads, or deliver their cargoes at the wharfs of the Caledonian canal, within a mile of the town. During the summer months, steam-vessels sail regularly from Inverness to Leith, Aberdeen, and London. Shipbuilding has within the last few years been introduced, and is carried on upon a moderate scale. The marketdays are Tuesday and Friday, when butchers' meat, eggs, and poultry, and garden and agricultural produce of every kind, are exposed for sale in great abundance. Fairs are held in February, July, August, and November, for cattle, horses, butter, cheese, home-made stuffs, and various other kinds of merchandise. The July fair is attended by the principal Highland sheep-farmers, and by the south of Scotland and English wool-staplers, when not less than 100,000 head of sheep, and an equal number of stones of wool, are generally sold. The exchange, situated near the town-hall, is a neat building, well adapted for its use; and the old cross, in front of it, is still in good preservation.

The Caledonian Canal, which extends from Inverness, on the north-east, to Corpach, near Fort-William, on the south-west, intersects Scotland from sea to sea. It passes for eight miles within the parish; and its entire length is 60½ miles, of which twenty-three miles have been formed by excavation, and the remainder consists of a succession of natural lakes, Loch Ness, Loch Oich, and Loch Lochy. The canal is 120 feet wide at the top, fifty at the bottom, and the full depth of water corresponding to these dimensions was proposed to be twenty feet; but the works have not hitherto been completed to afford a greater practicable depth than thirteen or fourteen feet. There are twenty-eight locks on the line, fourteen ascending to, and fourteen descending from, the summit level in Loch Oich, which is about ninety-five feet above ordinary high-water at Inverness. The locks are 170 feet long, by forty in breadth, the rise in most cases being eight feet; and the bridges are of cast-iron, and swing horizontally. Acts for the construction of the canal were passed in 1803 and 1804; the works were commenced under the superintendence of Mr. Telford, in 1805; and after an expenditure of nearly £1,000,000 sterling, the navigation was opened in 1822, in the unfinished state already mentioned, and in which it has ever since remained. The present rate of tonnage-duty, levied on sailing-vessels or steam-boats laden or unladen, passing along the canal in either direction, is one farthing per ton per mile; there being no dues chargeable upon goods of any description. The produce of the rate amounted, for the year ending 30th April, 1842, to £2723; and the number of passages made by vessels during that period was 1350. Since then, the navigation has only been partially open, at irregular intervals, owing to the works not being in a perfect state. The detective and unsatisfactory condition of the canal has, however, of late engaged the serious attention of government; and nautical and engineering surveys and reports have been made by Sir Edward Parry and Mr. Walker, who concur in recommending the efficient repair and completion of the works, with the establishment of steam tug-boats and other facilities for the accommodation of the larger classes of commercial shipping. The estimated expense of these operations is about £200,000, towards which the sum of £105,000 was voted by parliament up to 1844; and a contract has been entered into for the engineering details, amounting to £136,000, which will occupy a period of three years from their commencement in October, 1843. The passage from sea to sea is necessarily interrupted during their progress; but parts of the canal are kept open, and made available for the local traffic.

The town was made a royal Burgh by character of David I,; and additional privileges were granted by succeeding monarchs to the time of James VI., under whose charter, in 1591, the government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and fourteen councillors. The councillors were formerly elected by a majority of their own body, five of whom retired every year, and were replaced: the provost, bailies, dean of guild, and treasurer remained members of the council for one year after the expiration of their office, and of course were not of the number that retired. There are six incorporated trades, viz., the hammermen, wrights and coopers, shoemakers, tailors, weavers, and skinners, into one of which a person must enter before he is eligible to the council or magistracy; the fees of admission vary from £1. 1. to £3 for sons of freemen, for apprentices from £5 to £6, and for strangers from £20 to £30. The jurisdiction of the burgh extends over the whole of the ancient and enlarged royalty; and the magistrates hold courts, with jurisdiction equivalent to that of the sheriff, for the determination of civil pleas, and the trial of criminal offences, in which the town-clerk acts as assessor. The average number of civil causes tried annually is forty, of from £2 to £20 in amount; and of criminal causes two. There is also a court held by the dean of guild, as well as a sheriff's court for the recovery of small debts. The burgh, in conjunction with the burghs of Forres, Fortrose, and Nairn, returns a member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident £10 householders. The town-hall, at the extremity of Church-street, was erected in 1708, and contains the necessary accommodations for transacting the public business: the gaol, erected in 1791, has a handsome spire 150 feet in height, but is ill adapted for the classification of prisoners. The county-hall, situated on the Castle Hill, is a good building in the castellated style, erected at an expenses of £7000, after a design by Mr. Burn, of Edinburgh, and has the requisite court-rooms and offices: immediately adjoining is a site reserved for the erection of a new gaol for the county and the town.

The parish extends along the coast of the Moray and Beauty Friths, and is about fourteen miles in length and two and a half in average breadth, comprising an area of 12,000 acres, of which 9000 are arable, and the remainder, of which 1000 might be brought into cultivation, woodland, plantations, and waste. The surface, of which a considerable portions, forming part of the Caledonian valley, or great Glen of Albin, is tolerably level, is diversified on each side by the mountainous chains which bound the vale, and which, towards the coast, decrease in height. These mountains subside on the east into a smooth ridge having an elevation of about 400 feet, and on the west divide into groups of picturesque hills, terminating in Craig-Phadric, a remarkable elevation of vitrified rock, with a tabular summit, to which the ascent is by precipitous and rugged acclivities. Along the line of coast, which is marked with bays of gentle curvature, is a level tract of rich land in the best state of cultivation; and most of the higher grounds are beautifully ornamented with luxuriant woods, and plantations of Scotch fir, larch, ash, elm, beech, and oak. The river Ness, which has its source in Loch Ness, after a course of eight miles, flows through the parish into the bay opposite Kessock point, between the Moray and Beauly Friths; and there are numerous rivulets, of which several in their progress form picturesque cascades. The Ness formerly abounded with salmon, and the fisheries on it produced a rental of £1100 per annum, which, within the last thirty years, has been reduced to £370; and there is a prospect of a still further reduction. A few herrings or coal-fish are occasionally taken on the sea-shore. The prevailing scenery is marked with features, in some parts of grandeur, and in others of romantic beauty; and the views from the higher grounds are extensive and richly varied. Numerous handsome seats of the Highland gentry are situated in the glens, and on the elevated ridges which intersect the parish; and the pleasing hamlets of their tenantry are scattered through the various districts. There are also many tastefully ornamented villas in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. The soil in the upper lands is light and sandy, resting on a substratum of gravel; and in the lower lands, a deep rich loam, intermixed with clay: the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, hay, and the usual green crops. The system of agriculture is advanced; the lands are well inclosed with fences of stone or hedges; and the farm houses and offices are generally substantial and commodious. Considerable portions of waste have been reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation; and all the more recent improvements in implements of husbandry have been adopted. The cattle are usually of a mixed breed, partaking of the Old Highland, Moray, and Ayrshire kinds; and considerable attention is paid in rearing them for the dairy, and also for the market. There are some quarries of red and of grey sandstone, which are wrought to a moderate extent, chiefly for domestic purposes. The rateable annual value of the parish is £30,258, including £10,500 for the burgh. Among the gentlemen's seats are, Culloden House, Raigmore House, New Castle, the Inches, Culduthel, Dochfour, Dunain, and Muirtown, all beautifully situated in richly-planted demesnes.

The parish, with which that of Bona was united at a time not distinctly known, is the head of the presbytery of Inverness, in the synod of Moray. There are three parochial ministers, who officiate alternately in the two ancient CHURCHES. The first and second have each a stipend of £276. 10., with a small allowance in lieu of the manses, which, being ruinous, were sold for inconsiderable sums, of which they receive the interest respectively; and the proceeds of the glebe, amounting to £100 per annum, are equally divided between them. The third minister has a stipend of £200, of which part is paid from the exchequer; but he has neither manse nor glebe. Of the two old churches, the one called the High church, in which divine service is performed only in the English language, was built in 1772; it is a plain edifice containing 1260 sittings, and has an ancient square tower, said to have been erected by Oliver Cromwell. The other, called the Gaelic church, because the service is performed in that language, was built in 1794, and is also a plain structure, containing 1220 sittings. The patronage is in the Crown and Lord Lovat; but the latter has transferred his portion of it, during his life, to Professor Scott, of King's College, Aberdeen. The late quoad sacra parish of North Church was separated from the parish of Inverness by act of the General Assembly: the church, erected in 1837, at a cost of £1400, raised by subscription, aided by a grant from the Assembly, is a neat structure containing 1033 sittings. The late quoad sacra parish of East Inverness was nearly five miles in length and about two miles in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 5000 acres, and including an extensive rural district: the church, built in 1798, at a cost of £1400, by subscription, and altered and repaired in 1822, has 1177 sittings. There is a preaching station in the ancient parish of Bona, where divine service is performed by the assistant of one of the ministers of the parish. The episcopal chapel, erected in 1801, at a cost of £1000, is a neat building; and there are places of worship for the United Secession, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel, erected in 1836, at an expense of £2000. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church.

The old burgh grammar school has long merged into the Royal Academy, founded in 1792, for the education of children in the higher classes of the Highland population; incorporated by royal charter; and endowed by liberal subscriptions, and the transfer of the funds appropriated by the burgh to the support of the old grammar school. To these sources of income has been added a munificent bequest of property, now amounting to £26,794, by Captain William Macintosh, of Farr, in 1803, for the education of boys of that name, of the families of Farr, Holm, Dalmigavie, and Kellachy, or the nearest of kin, of whom there are nearly forty in the establishment. The academy is under the direction of the provost and magistrates of the burgh, the sheriff of the county, the moderator of the presbytery, and a committee of five persons chosen annually from the subscribers; and the instruction is given by a rector, who has a salary of £250 per annum, without any fees, and four classical and other masters, who, in addition to their fees, have salaries varying from £30 to £40 each. The course of studies consists of the classics, mathematics, the elements of chemistry, natural history, and philosophy, with all the branches of a commercial education: there are at present about 300 pupils. Mr. John Raining, of Norwich, in 1747, bequeathed £1000 to the General Assembly, for the foundation of a school, which has been established here, and placed under the direction of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; it has two masters, who receive salaries of £48 and £40 per annum, respectively, with a house and garden each; and the number of pupils is 250. There are also two other schools in the parish, of which the masters have salaries of £17 and £15 each, supported by the same society, A large school, likewise, has recently been erected by the magistrates, to whom the Rev. Dr. Bell bequeathed £10,000, in trust, for the foundation and support of schools on the Madras system. The Infirmary, to which is attached a lunatic asylum, was founded in 1804, chiefly through the exertions of the provost, William Inglis, Esq., and is supported by subscriptions and donations. It is under the direction of the magistrates of the burgh, the sheriff of the county, the moderator of the presbytery, the ministers of the parish, and a committee of subscribers annually chosen; the medical department is superintended by the faculty, who visit the institution gratuitously, a resident house-surgeon and apothecary, a matron, nurses, and the requisite attendants. The building, which is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the river, beyond the town, is a handsome and spacious structure, including a distinct arrangement for the asylum, which is detached from the infirmary. The latter contains numerous airy and well-ventilated wards for the various classes of patients, with hot and cold baths. The Dispensary, situated on Muirtown Green, was established in 1832, for administering advice and medicines to the poor, and has afforded extensive relief; it is wholly supported by subscription. There are also several benefit societies in the town, which have tended to diminish the number of applications for parochial relief. Mr. Jonathan Anderson, of Glasgow, bequeathed to the magistrates property now amounting to £3845; and Mr. Klien, also, bequeathed £1000, of which the interest is distributed annually among decayed householders. The United Charitable Institutions, for which a neat building has been erected on an eminence to the south of the Castle Hill, to which it is proposed to add a tower, fitted up for an observatory, include an infant school, a female school, a female work society, and an association for the distribution of blankets and clothing to the poor.

Above the village of Clachnaharry, to the west of the town, are some rocky eminences called the Watchman's stones, where anciently a guard was stationed to give notice of the approach of any hostile force, and on one of which a lofty column was erected by the late H. R. Duff, Esq., of Muirtown, to commemorate a sanguinary conflict that took place in 1333, between the Clan Chattan and the Monrose of Fowlis. Near these eminences is the hill of Craig Phadric, on the summit of which, at an elevation of 435 feet above the level of the sea, is a vitrified fortress with a double vallum, exhibiting heaps of boulder stones strongly cemented by fire. It was connected with a chain of similar fortresses extending in various directions into the centre of the county, and upon which beacon-fires were anciently lighted, to convey signals to the opposite coast. To the west of Craig Phadric is a high gravelly ridge called Tor-a-Bhean, supposed to contain the tomb of Donald Bane, a chieftain of the Hebrides, who, in 1187, at the head of a body of islanders, encountered Duncan Macintosh, son of the governor of Inverness Castle, when a severe conflict ensued, in which both were killed. Near the base of this ridge, on the shore of the Caledonian canal, a massive silver chain of thirty-three double circular links was found in 1808, weighing 104 ounces, and thought to have been worn by that island chief as an ensign of office; it is now in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. On the margin of Loch Dochfour are the remains of the church of Bona; and between Loch Dochfour and Loch Ness is a quadrilateral inclosure, rounded at the angles, supposed to have been a Roman camp, and on the highest point of which are the ruins of a fort commanding the fords across the river Ness. In the same vicinity are numerous sepulchral tumuli. The eastern portion of the parish contains part of the memorable field on which the battle of Culloden was fought; and bordering on the parish of Croy are many cairns, and various circles of stones, supposed to be Druidical. Near the mouth of the river Ness is Cairn Arc, a large pile of stones, in the Moray Firth; and in Beauly Firthir are several similar cairns, which are corroborative of the opinion, not unsustained by facts, that the sea has made considerable encroachments on this part of the coast. The late Duke of Sussex bore the inferior title of Earl of Inverness; and the place at present gives the title of Duchess to the widow of his royal highness.